6 Develop a global partnership for development

Where are we?

Latin America and the Caribbean recorded significant advances in its international integration from 2005 to 2009. Its exports grew, mostly thanks to a favourable external context which was due to high commodity prices. The growth of those exports slowed, however, from the second half of 2008, and in 2009 they fell sharply as a result of the world economic crisis, in line with the falls experienced by trade worldwide.

The most recent figures show that almost 95 percent of the region’s exports to the developed countries enter those markets free of duty, a much higher proportion than that for the developing countries as a whole; higher even than that for the group of least developed countries. Nonetheless, the developed countries still practise high levels of tariff protection in sectors of particular importance for the region’s exports, especially agriculture. Non-tariff barriers such as rules of origin or strict sanitary and technical standards can, in many cases, prevent the region's exporters from benefiting from the tariff preferences available to them.

Since the adoption in 2000 of the Millennium Development Goals, there has been a sustained increase in the proportion of imports by the developed economies from both the developing countries and the least developed countries. In 2007, those proportions stood at 83 percent and 89 percent, respectively. If petroleum —which tends to be subject to very low import duty, or even exempt, in the industrialized countries— is excluded from the calculation, those proportions fall to 79 percent and 80 percent, respectively.

 Graphs pg 287

 Source: ECLAC

External debt service payments as proportion of export revenues, 2009, 2010 and 2011

Bar Chart
Targets for MDG8
  1. Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system
    • Developing countries gain greater access to the markets of developed countries
    • Least developed countries benefit most from tariff reductions, especially on their agricultural products
  2. Address the special needs of least developed countries
    • Net Official development assistance (ODA), total and to the least developed countries, as percentage of OECD/DAC donors' gross national income
    • Proportion of total bilateral, sector-allocable ODA of OECD/DAC donors to basic social services (basic education, primary health care, nutrition, safe water and sanitation)
    • Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is untied
    • Market access
    • Debt sustainability
  3. Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small island developing States
    • Official development assistance (ODA) received in landlocked developing countries as a proportion of their gross national income
    • ODA received in small island developing States as a proportion of their gross national incomes
    • Proportion of bilateral official development assistance of OECD/DAC donors that is untied
    • Market access
    • Debt sustainability
  4. Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries
    • Total number of countries that have reached their HIPC decision points and number that have reached their HIPC completion points (cumulative)
    • Debt relief committed under HIPC and MDRI Initiatives
    • Debt service as a percentage of exports of goods and services
  5. In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries
    • Proportion of population with access to affordable essential drugs on a sustainable basis
  6. In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications
    • Telephone lines per 100 population
    • Cellular subscribers per 100 population
    • Internet users per 100 population